### Rainer Sachs, Professor

**(1) Modeling cancer risk for astronauts on Mars missions or other extended voyages above low earth orbit. **

*Open. Apprentices needed for the fall semester. Please do NOT contact faculty before September 11th (the start of the 4th week of classes)! Enter your application on the web beginning August 16th. The deadline to apply is Tuesday, August 29th at 8 AM.*

We will meet for an hour a week to discuss progress. At least six hrs/week of work would be needed, mostly at your own time on your own computer. Students are required to sign up for URAP. However they may choose to take 0 hours, which avoids using up units needed for other courses. In many cases the primary result will be a broadening of the student's perspective. However, sometimes a student coauthorship on a published paper results. I believe the URAP program should be primarily for the education of the student, not for the convenience of the faculty members, but some routine tasks will be part of the assignments. There will be no specific benchmarks students have to meet, other than utilizing their strengths and filling in gaps in their knowledge and their mathematical/computational expertise.

Applied mathematicians typically find it much easier to do formal calculations than to gain a reasonable perspective on what calculations are useful. I hope the proposed project will help a hard-science major gain expertise in biomedical applications.

Qualifications: My best results with URAP have come when students try a project one semester and then choose to continue. Therefore I will prefer students whose anticipated graduation date is Jan 2019 or later though of course you don't need to commit to more than one semester now. This is an opportunity for students with backgrounds in applied math, statistics, computer science, pure math, physics, chemistry, or MCB to apply their knowledge to cancer biology. The student should be familiar with computer programming in R and must give details of how much R they know in their application. The student should also have one calculus-based course in probability or statistics. Very desirable but not essential: good understanding of lower division material on non-linear first order odinary differential equations; upper division probability and statistics course(s). Grades in STEM courses should average A- or better, preferably with at least one A+. Lower division students should have mainly A and A+ grades in technical courses. Desirable: upper division courses in MCB. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of the projects, many students might need some extra background. In that case the first half of the semester would be devoted to rounding off the student's expertise and the second half would involve some calculations.

Weekly Hours: 6-9 hrs

Off-Campus Research Site: apart from weekly meetings most of the work will be done by the student at home or anywhere else the student finds convenient.

Related website: http://math.berkeley.edu/~sachs/index.html

**(2) Synergy modeling in pharmacology: a new mathematical approach**

Working for NASA on carcinogenic effects of the unusual ionizing radiation types that occur only outside of low earth orbit, cannot be shielded against in practice, and may be unexpectedly toxic, my group has found a better way to formulate the default hypothesis which relates mixture effects to the effects of its components. The project is to apply this new formalism to some simulated pharmacological data, or to real data in the literature, and compare its accuracy with that of the older methods.

See project 1

Qualifications: See project 1

Weekly Hours: 6-9 hrs

Off-Campus Research Site: Apart from weekly 1 hour meetings most of the work will be done by the student at home or anywhere else the student wants to use his/her laptop and the internet.

Related website: http://math.berkeley.edu/~sachs/index.html

Related website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR14411.1.S1

Related website: http://math.berkeley.edu/~sachs/index.html (out of date)